MacARTHUR, A FREEMASON FOR ALL SEASONS
By Herbert G. Gardiner, PGS
of East and West
"Oh, East is East,
and West is West, and never the twain
Till Earth and sky stand presently at
God's great judgment
But there is neither
East nor West, Border, nor Breed, nor Birth,
When two strong men stand face to face,
though they come
from the ends
of the earth!..."
Unfortunately a great many people are not
aware of what follows
the opening fourteen words of Brother Kipling's "Ballad of East and West," and as a result they
reach an erroneous conclusion. Not realizing that their understanding is exactly
opposite of what Kipling was actually trying to convey, they frequently quote
the first lines of the ballad to bolster
their position that the gulf between the people
of the East and those of the West is so great, that they can never really
understand each other nor can they work
together. But Kipling was dead right. Men who hail from opposite sections of
the globe of widely diverse ethnic and cultural backgrounds, of different races
persuasions, can and do work together in harmony. Such men not only
work together for the common good, but in many instances their efforts
result in outstanding accomplishments of a magnitude that commands world-wide
Over the years some Freemasons have proved Kipling was right, both within
the Masonic fraternity, and also in relationships between Freemasons and
non-Masons. Freemasons like Douglas MacArthur whose close association with the Philippines and
post-war Japan, and Clare Lee Channault whose
American Volunteer Group,
(The Flying Tigers) who fought
for Nationalist China in early 1942, and outflew and outfought Imperial Japan's finest pilots
in the skies over China, Burma and India, knew exactly what Kipling meant in
1889, when he wrote "The Ballad of East and West," they had lived it.
(Chennault's battleground later became known as the CBI Theater in World War
For purposes of our story we will focus on Douglas MacArthur. Although
he served in France, Australia, New Guinea, Korea, Japan and other parts of the
world, he is most closely
identified with the Philippines. Before we look at MacArthur the Freemason, we should pause to note a few highlights about the amazing career
of this unusual man who was frequently at the vortex of controversy.
graduated first in his class from the U.S. Military Academy in 1903, and had
a meteoric military career. He served in the Philippines prior to the first
World War, was Commander of the famous 42nd Rainbow Division in France during WW I and was wounded twice. He
became the superintendent of West Point in 1919. From 1930-1935
he was the Army Chief of Staff. In 1935 he became military advisor to the
government of the Philippines. He retired from active
duty in 1937, but was recalled in July 1941, and was appointed Commander of
U.S. and Philippine Armed Forces in the Philippines.
When Imperial Japan's Forces attacked the Philippines in 1941, MacArthur's American and Filipino troops conducted
a stubborn defense, compelling the invaders to pay a high toll for the Bataan peninsula and the Island fortress Corregidor.
Regrettably, neither the U.S. nor the Philippine
Armed Forces were strong enough, or adequately equipped to repel an invading
foe with the experience and of the size of the Imperial Japanese Forces.
Unfortunately reinforcements and equipment were not available either.
MacArthur was ordered against his wishes to leave the
Philippines by President Roosevelt,
and was evacuated to Australia. Arriving there weary from the arduous journey,
he was besieged by reporters and casually commented, "The President of the
United States ordered me to proceed
from Corregidor to Australia for the purpose, as I
understand it, of organizing the American offensive against Japan, a primary object of
which is the relief of the Philippines. I came through and I
shall return." This last phrase "I shall return" came to
symbolize the determination of General MacArthur and
the United States, to drive the Imperial
Japanese Forces out of the Philippines.
In 1944, Douglas MacArthur
became a 5-star general. Return he did, and the American Armed Forces and the
Philippine guerrillas took the Philippines in 1945. Other then a
few ships and aircraft, the Australians and the British were told in advance
that they would be excluded from the operation. As far as General MacArthur and most of the American leaders were concerned,
it was a private fight and except for the forces of the Philippines, nobody else was
Supreme Commander he accepted the
surrender of the defeated Empire of Japan aboard the battleship Missouri. Admiral Chester Nimitz accepted the surrender on behalf of the United States.
Between the end of the war in the Pacific in
1945, and 1950, Douglas MacArthur was Chief of the
Occupation Forces of Japan, and was responsible for the introduction of a
democratic constitutional government in that country. Douglas MacArthur was a controversial figure, and like most men who
have held positions of great power, he had his supporters and his antagonists.
However, even many of his severest critics have credited him with doing an
outstanding job during the years that he was Chief of the Occupation
Forces, and the de facto ruler of Japan. President Truman told him: "You will
exercise your authority
as you deem it necessary to carry out your mission. Our relations
with Japan do not rest on a
contractual basis, but on unconditional surrender...Our authority is supreme."
In essence MacArthur had been given a blank check,
and he represented himself as being soley responsible
for administering Japan. He had enormous and absolute
power, and did not hesitate to utilize
it. In the judgment of
many analysts and historians MacArthur's governing of
Japan was his greatest
achievement, surpassing all of his military victories. Historians and "Think Tanks" alike
believe that if ever a man's career and personality fitted him for such a role MacArthur's did. As the ruler of Japan his flair for melodrama
and personal splendor and his organizational experience were ideally suited for
the task. It was MacArthur the American Shogun, more
than anyone else, who helped to lay the foundation for modern day Japan.
At the outbreak of the Korean conflict MacArthur was back on active duty as head of the United
Nations Forces there. His Inchon landings, and
overall operation during September 15-25, 1950, when the North Koreans were
rolled back, is still considered one of the most brilliant exercises in modern
amphibious warfare. Unfortunately, his subsequent advance to the Yalu river and Chinese border,
provoked massive Chinese intervention which resulted in near disaster for the
U.N. Forces. He then began to issue public statements on how the Korean war should be fought, and became embroiled in a conflict
with his superiors in Washington over the aims of the
war, which led to his being relieved by President Harry Truman.
COUPLE OF FREEMASONS
At the time of MacArthur's
removal President Truman was also a Past
Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Missouri. Before dismissing General MacArthur, President Truman consulted with his advisors,
which included Generals George C. Marshall who was Secretary of Defense at the
time, and Omar N. Bradley who was chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. In
December of 1941, George Marshall had been made a Mason "at sight" by
the Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of the District of Columbia. Omar Bradley had been
raised in West Point Lodge No.877, Highland Falls, New York in 1923. Dean Atcheson and Averell Harriman
were also consulted. The recommendation to dismiss General MacArthur
was unanimous...it was not the best of times for the Craft. Douglas MacArthur was relieved by Lieutenant General Matthew B. Ridgeway
who was also a Freemason. Like Bradley,
he was a member of West Point Lodge No. 877, and was raised on May
He received his 32nd degree in the A.A.S.R. (S/J) at Tokyo, Japan in October, 1951.
received a tumultuous welcome when he returned to the United States, after having been away for fourteen years. In the closing statement
of his address to a joint session of Congress, he said in part "...Old soldiers never
die; they just fade away. And like the old soldier of the ballad, I now close
my military service and just fade away an old soldier who tried to do his duty
as God gave him the light to see that duty, Good-bye."
At the outbreak of the Spanish American War
on February 15, 1898, when the U.S.S. Maine was
destroyed by a mysterious explosion in Havana harbor killing 268 crew
members, very few Americans were aware
of the fact that a Philippine revolution against Spain had begun almost two years earlier on August
26, 1896. The United States formally declared war
on Spain on April
Spanish interest in the Philippines began
with Ferdinand Magellan's expedition that departed from Spain on September 20,
1519, and after an extremely hazardous journey that almost decimated his fleet, the shattered remnants of a once proud expedition arrived
on the Island of Samar on March 17, 1521. Later he
moved to the Island of Cebu where he proceeded to convert the islanders to Catholicism.
During this period some of his officers complained that Magellan seemed
obsessed with converting the Filipinos, and appeared to forget that his real
mission was to reach the Moluccas (Spice Islands). Shortly after
arriving at Cebu Magellan made a fatal mistake by
interfering in a local feud on the
little Island of Mactan, and was killed on April 27, 1521 by Lapulapu one of the Filipino chiefs.
The Spanish conquest of the Philippines began with the arrival of Miguel Lopez Legazpi on the Island of Cebu in 1565. After capturing
Manila on the Island of Luzon, he declared it the
capitol of the Philippines on June
after he died. With the conquests of Lagazpi, the
conquistadors and the friars that followed him, they paved the way for Spanish
colonial rule that lasted for over three
The Spanish colonization of the Philippines had produced an all
powerful governing force consisting of two components, the Spanish ruling
officials, and the
Catholic church in the form of the friars. The Spanish aristocracy ran the government,
frequently with the help of the friars who in addition to acquiring vast tracts
of land for themselves,
totally controlled the entire education system in accordance
with what in their personal judgment
was best for the Filipino population. The Filipino people had no say or influence in their government or their education.
Freemasonry was not tolerated by the Spanish
the friars used every means at their disposal to prevent Freemasonry from getting
a foothold in the Philippines. The first official
doctrine banning Freemasonry in the Philippines was a Royal Letter Patent dated
January 19, 1816, issued by the Council of the Regency of Spain and the Indies,
and reads in part as follows: "One of the most serious evils that afflict the Church and State is the growth of
the order of Freemasons, so repeatedly proscribed by the Sovereign
Pontiffs and by all Catholic Sovereigns
of Europe...It is to the advantage of the spiritual welfare of the faithful and
for the peace of nations to prevent, with the most scrupulous vigilance, the meetings of this class of people; and
having discovered in the Indies some of those wicked secret religious societies...I have decided...to order and command all
Judges in those dominions of the ordinary Royal Jurisdiction...shall proceed
against the above mentioned Freemasons..."
Eventually Freemasonry became very well established in the Philippines, primarily by the same patriotic men who fought for
independence first from Spain and later from the United States. But this took place
after Spain had been defeated by the Americans, and
Spanish rule was no longer in existence and the governing power of the
friars was eliminated.
On May 1,
the Spanish Fleet in the Philippines under the command of Admiral Montojo was destroyed in the Battle of Manila Bay by the
American Asiatic Squadron under the
command of Commodore (later admiral) George Dewey. The command "You may
fire when ready, Captain Gridley," was given by Commodore Dewey at 5:41
a.m. at a distance of three miles, and America roared forth her first battle cry to the Spanish held
Philippines from the starboard eight-inch gun in the forward turret of the
Flagship Olympia. On August 13th the
Spanish Army units in Manila surrendered to the
American forces under the command of Major General Wesley Merritt. In America both the government and
the people were
divided on the issue of the future status
of the Philippines. Initially many of the
Filipino leaders thought the Philippines would be treated like Cuba and granted freedom.
But in the end, the Philippines came under the United States.
On December 10, 1898 a peace treaty was signed between the United States and Spain in Paris. Under the terms of the
treaty, Spain reluctantly ceded the Philippines, Guam and Puerto Rico to the United States for $20,000,000, with Cuba becoming an independent
country. No Filipino representatives were present.
Neither Emilo Aguinaldo the president of the Philippine Revolutionary government and one of
its foremost Freemasons, nor the vast
majority of his countrymen had any
intention of exchanging the despotism of the friars and their Spanish oppressors for the paternalism
of the American liberator. They wanted the same complete freedom that the United States had granted to Cuba, and would settle for
nothing less. As a result of the impact of the Paris treaty on the Philippines, a fierce and bloody conflict arose between
the Americans and the Filipinos.
In the United States the fighting is referred to as the Philippine Insurrection, the
Filipino people call it the Philippine-American War. Many American and Filipino scholars believe
the term "Philippine Insurrection" is not only a contradiction in
terms, but in concept as well.
Irrespective of how one chooses to identify the fighting, it was ruthless and savage, and there were
Freemasons on both sides who fought against each
the father of Douglas, had won the
Congressional Medal of Honor as a Union Officer at Missionary Ridge in the Civil War. He was made a Master Mason in Magnolia Lodge
No.60 at Little Rock Arkansas on December
In the Spanish American
war he led a contingent
against the Spanish army in Manila and later fought against the Filipinos in
the Philippine Insurrection.
had yet to get some glimmer of the meaning
of Brother Kipling's "Ballad
of East and West," when in 1903, as
a young 1st Lieutenant in the
Corps of Engineers, he was assigned to
the Philippines. He was posted first to the port of Iloilo on Panay and later to Tacloban where he supervised the construction of a dock and led patrols on
Leyte. Although President Theodore Roosevelt issued a
proclamation on July 4, 1902 ending the Philippine Insurrection, that
didn't stop some of the Visayan men from venting
their dislike of the Americans, which MacArthur had
been warned about. In November he led a detachment into a jungle
which he knew to be dangerous, to obtain timber for piling and was ambushed by
two guerrilla fighters. A bullet tore through the crown of his campaign hat and
lodged in a sapling behind him. MacArthur drew his
.38 revolver and shot both guerrillas. He contracted malaria in 1904, and was
transferred back to Manila. While there he passed
his examination for the rank of first lieutenant, and was subsequently ordered to survey Mariveles,
at the tip of Bataan.
Dining at the Army-Navy Club one evening
with a fellow officer
he was introduced to two young Filipinos, Manuel Quezon and Sergio Osmena. More than likely none of
these three men could foresee that in the
years to follow fate would bring them together during a devastating war and in peace time.
Manuel Luis Quezon
is considered by many Filipinos as the Father of Philippine Independence. He
was Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of the Philippines in 1918, the first
Filipino to hold that exalted office. Manuel Quezon
was president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines from 1935 until his
death at Lake Saranac, New York, on August
He was inaugurated for
his second term of office as President in an air-raid shelter on Corregidor.
served as Vice-President of the Philippines under Quezon, and accompanied him to the United States after the Imperial
Forces of Japan had taken the Philippines. He became President
when Quezon died. In January 1945 he accompanied Mac
Arthur as they waded ashore at Leyte, and later helped to
integrate the Filipino guerrilla forces with the U.S. Army. Osmena
became head of the new civilian government after the Philippines was liberated.
Thirty-two years after meeting Quezon and Osmena, when MacArthur was raised to the sublime degree of Master Mason
in the Philippines, he began to appreciate
the sentiment expressed by Kipling in "The Ballad Of
East And West."
Douglas MacArthur became a Freemason while serving as
field marshal in the capacity of
military advisor to the commonwealth government of the Philippines. He did not join the
Craft in the conventional way by petitioning a Lodge for the degrees of
Masonry. For that matter, either by
design or by fate MacArthur did very few things
during his lifetime in the conventional manner.
For the second time in the history of the
Grand Lodge of the Philippines, Most
Worshipful Samuel Hawthorne
to make a "Mason at sight" on January
17, 1936, in the presence of
over six hundred Master Masons who watched in breathless silence in a crowded hall, Samuel Hawthorne,
Grand Master of Masons in the Philippines made General Douglas MacArthur a Mason at sight. MacArthur
was visibly moved throughout the ceremony. The Entered Apprentice Degree was
given with P.G.M. Frederick H. Stevens presiding. Immediately following, P.G.M.
Francisco A. Delagado conferred the Fellowcraft Degree on MacArthur.
When it was concluded, M.W. Samuel Hawthorne raised General MacArthur
to the sublime degree of Master Mason.
It was an impressive ceremony and it
included an address by
P.G.M. Eugene Stafford who recalled his very
close association with MacArthur's father, General
Arthur MacArthur when he commanded the Philippine
division and later served as Military Governor of the Philippines in 1900-1901.
Concluding the ceremony, some twenty grizzled veterans still possessing the
military bearing of
a bygone era, and almost all Past Masters, who had served with General Arthur MacArthur,
36 years before, lined up in the East.
It was an extraordinary ceremony, the Freemasons of the Philippines welcomed a prominent
American General into the Craft as a brother, and also paid homage to his father a Freemason who
some of the brethren had fought along side of, and others had undoubtedly
fought against a generation before. It was a golden moment for Freemasonry in
the Philippines and for Douglas MacArthur who had always wanted to be a Freemason like his
father. The ceremony lasted for two hours.
After being raised to the sublime degree of
Master Mason, Douglas MacArthur affiliated with
Manila Lodge No.1 and on March 13th joined the Scottish Rite.
On October 19, 1937, he was elected Knight Commander Court of
Honor, and on December 8, 1947, he was coroneted
Honorary 33rd Degree at the American Embassy in Tokyo. He became a life
member of the Nile Shrine Temple in Seattle, Washington.
WENT WRONG IN HAWAII IN DECEMBER 1941?
Knowing that some high-ranking military
officers had testified falsely, and on incomplete information before the two Army Pearl Harbor
Boards investigating the events leading up to, and including the December 7,
1941, surprise attack on Pearl Harbor by
the Empire of Japan, Henry L. Stimson Secretary of
War, decided in 1944, that he was going to get at the truth of the matter.
Investigations conducted up to that time produced a lot of finger-pointing, an
opportunity for some high-ranking military officers to settle old scores, and a
chance for some high level civilian government officials to inject their political
biases into the proceedings, and also revealed an alarming degree of
inter-service rivalry. All of which resulted in a distorted and murky picture
of what had occurred,
with no definitive answers. It was coupled with rumors of conspiracy
on the part of President Roosevelt, and some of the men close to him, which was
generated by unsubstantiated information, and biased political opponents. The
primary problem was that in addition to the above, the second Army Navy Pearl
Harbor Board had based its report on misleading testimony, and the lack of
critical decrypted information that had been excluded from the investigation!
appointed a young unassuming major who was a lawyer from the Army's Judge
Advocate General's Corps, to conduct a special
investigation and question any one under
oath from enlisted personnel to the Chief of
Staff, General George C. Marshall,
who in his judgment was involved
or had pertinent information. The young major was Henry C. Clausen who had served as the Assistant
Recorder to the Army Pearl Harbor
Board's investigation during the period July 24, 1944 to October 19,
1944, Clausen was a Freemason, who after
the war became the Grand Master of Masons in California and Hawaii, and later
the Sovereign Grand Commander, Supreme Council, Ancient and Accepted Scottish
Rite of Freemasonry for the Southern Jurisdiction of the United States.
Brother Clausen was given written carte
blanche authority by Secretary Stimson to conduct his
investigation. He talked to numerous generals,
admirals, and lower ranking officers, some of whom initially were less than
cooperative. After they learned the full extent of Bro. Clausen's authority,
and that he was in possession of ultrasecret decoded
Japanese messages, which he wore in a self-destructing case, they developed a
remarkable improvement in memory. When Bro. Clausen interviewed General Douglas
MacArthur in Manila in 1945, he encountered
no such problems. He found the General forthcoming and cooperative, as was his
Chief of Intelligence, Major General Willoughby. Both men gave Major Clausen
sworn affidavits, with no fuss or equivocation.
As Bro. Clausen was about to depart at the
conclusion of the interview, General MacArthur talked
to him about some personal matters, and the Major told him that when the war
began he had been the Grand Orator of the Grand Lodge of California and Hawaii. This led to a
discussion about Freemasonry,
and General MacArthur kept Major
Clausen in his office for almost an hour talking about the Craft. The following
Clausen's account of what ensued, "He talked about how to expand in the Far East the moral principles of
Freemasonry. Every dictator in history has tried to put the Masons out of
business because they believe in freedom. MacArthur
was positive that Hitler had poisoned the minds of the Japanese against the
Masonic Order for this very reason, and that was why the Imperial Government of Japan
forbade their men from joining the order. MacArthur
promised me that if and when he got to Japan, he was going to make
sure that such
provisions were eliminated from any future Constitution. He did,
"Since we are talking in this
fashion,' I (Clausen) said, may I tell you about the plight of some Masonic
people in Manila? We have a Lodge not
far from here. I drove there the other day, and they don't have any pencils.
They don't have any paper. The Japanese confiscated everything. I went to the
PX and got a load of groceries and gave it to one of the heads, and he gave me
a ring to give to my wife. Would there be any objection, General, to my using
the military mail to send over some implements that are used to start up the
Masonic Lodge, items such as rods, Bibles and so forth?" "Absolutely
not," MacArthur said. "I'm a Mason, my G-2,
Willoughby, is a Mason, We'll make
the arrangements for you."
Our Late Bro. Clausen in his book
"Pearl Harbor Final Judgment" describes the subsequent events as
follows, "Well Willoughby went overboard. He told me to send anything I
wanted. So, when I got back to Washington, I thought that the
first thing I should send was a master's hat, because the Master of the Masonic
Lodge wears a tall silk hat, plus rods and other implements of the order. The
Masons in Washington thought I was nuts, but
I managed to get everything that was needed to start the Lodge going again, and
shipped it to Manila. In later years,
whenever Willoughby came through San Francisco from Japan, where he was stationed
in MacArthur's occupation headquarters,
he'd stop by and tell me about the Masons in Manila. MacArthur
was also instrumental in getting the confiscated Masonic property in Manila and Japan returned to the
Seven months later in 1945, after
traveling 55,000 miles, and obtaining sworn affidavits from almost one hundred
Army, Navy, civilian and British personnel, Henry Clausen presented Secretary of War Stimson with an 800-page Top Secret Report, which revealed
a failure by the United States to exploit the invaluable intelligence it had
obtained prior to the attack on Pearl
Harbor. The report also reveals the truth about Pearl Harbor, and puts an end to all the conspiracy theories
mistakenly based on perjured testimony and self-serving misinformation that
unfortunately continues to pollute some historical records.
A little known fact is that when he became
Chief of the Occupation Forces in Japan General MacArthur did
his best to promote the establishment of Freemasonry in that country, and vigorously promulgated the tenets of the
Craft in his dealings with the government officials and people of Japan. When M.W. Estaban Munarriz Grand Master of
Masons in the Philippines, visited Japan in 1949, he was
received by General MacArthur who encouraged him and
the other Freemasons present to spread the principles of Freemasonry in Japan.
In his Inaugural Address, M.W. Werner P. Schetelig, Grand
Master of Masons in the Philippines said in part "A District Grand Lodge
for Japan has come into being....to consolidate what Philippine Masonry decided
to do a few years ago upon the suggestion of Brother MacArthur."
On June 2, 1954, M.W. Worshipful Schetelig, and his Grand Secretary, Grand Marshal, and Grand Chaplain
flew to Tokyo and instituted the District Grand Lodge of Japan. In 1957, the Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted
Masons of Japan was founded.
When Douglas MacArthur
completed his service in Japan and the Philippines, he could fully
appreciate Bro. Kipling's "Ballad of East and West," first hand. His
relationship with the people of the Philippines and Japan at all political,
military, social and economical levels validated Bro. Kipling's belief that
race and ethnicity are not a barrier when good men work together to achieve a goal for the common good.
After he retired from the Army for the
second time, Douglas MacArthur addressed several
groups on Americanism and Freemasonry. On one occasion he made the following
presentation about Freemasonry: "It embraces the highest moral laws and
will bear the test of any system of ethics or philosophy ever promulgated for
the uplift of man...its requirements are the things that are right, and its
restraints are the things that are wrong...inculcating doctrines of patriotism
and brotherly love, enjoying sentiments of exalted benevolence, encouraging all
that is good, kind and charitable, reprobating all that is cruel and
oppressive, its observance will uplift everyone under its influence ...to do
good to others, to forgive enemies, to love neighbors, to restrain passions, to
honor parents, to respect authority, to
return good for evil, not to bear false witness, not to lie, not to steal-these
are the essential elements of the moral law."
In 1961, at age 81, MacArthur was invited to the Philippines to join in the
celebration of the 15th Anniversary of the formation of the Republic of the Philippines. In Manila over two million people
gathered to cheer him as the man who led the battle to liberate them from the
oppressive rule of Imperial Japan in World War II. MacArthur
died at age 84, in 1964.
Underneath the sometimes imperious manner of
Douglas MacArthur who had suffered the bitter agony
of military defeat and
had also basked in the glory of highly successful major military
victories, was a man whose belief in the tenets of Freemasonry was absolute.
At age 62 Douglas MacArthur
was awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor for conspicuous leadership in the Philippines. Douglas MacArthur and his father Arthur MacArthur
are the only father and son recipients of the highest military award for
bravery that can be given to an individual in the United States.
Votaries of Honor, Grand Lodge of the Philippines,
Teodoro M. Kalaw, 1920. An English translation
from the Spanish by Frederick H. Stevens & Antonio Amechazurra,
1956. McCullough Printing.
Caesar, Douglas MacArthur 1880-1964, by William Manchester, 1978. Little, Brown.
Philippine American Relations, by Frank H. Golay, 1966.
The American Pacific, by Arthur P. Dudden, 1992. Oxford University Press.
Craft In The East, by Christopher Haffner,
1988. District Grand
Lodge of Hong Kong.
The Untold Story of Douglas MacArthur,
by Frazier Hunt, 1954. Signet Books.
A Choice of Kipling's Verse, by T.S, Eliot,
First published in this edition, 1963,
by Messrs. Methuen and
Pearl Harbor Final
Judgement, by Henry C. Clausen and Bruce Lee, 1992. Crown Publishers.
Medal of Honor, The Letter G In Valor, by S.
Revised 1995, Weidner Publishing Group.
MacArthur, by Sidney L. Mayer, 1971, Ballantine Books
MacArthur in Japan, by Sidney L. Mayer,
1973, Ballantine Books
The author is a Past Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge of Hawaii F,&
A.M. and presently the Grand Historian.